Calanthe culture is divided into two groups: deciduous and evergreen plants. The first normally have huge pseudobulbs, the evergreen plants have smaller pseudobulbs or completely lack them in some species. These two groups have been assigned into 2 subgenera: Eucalanthe for the deciduous and Preptanthe for the evergreen plants. This classification has been around since Seidenfaden, 1975 2) and there is a revision anticipated - their mutual exclusion in hybridisation shows a genetic base for further separation.
Pseudobulbs of a deciduous Calanthe in dormancy
Deciduous plants have a seasonal clock: a dormancy that reduces the plant to its pseudobulbs and roots, followed by flowering in the start of dormancy and growth of leaves in spring that die of at the start of the following dormancy.
This is reflected in the temperature and watering regime. They originate from warm Asian forests with rainy spring and summer, followed by a dry autumn and winter. In the wild they can be found in the middle of the forest growing on thick beds of leaf litter, decomposing logs and even in rocks with organic mulch in the cracks. They have an appetite for leaf-mould and this should be provided in their potting medium. The quantity of additional fertilizer can go higher than with regular terrestrials, from spring to the onset of dormancy you can use an orchid fertilizer up to 50% strength. The most important factor is watering, mimic their habitat by keeping the medium moist starting from when new growth is expanding in spring. Water regularly and flush the pots weekly during the peak of foliage health in summer. Don't let the soil dry out until the leaves start to show signs of yellowing. This announces dormancy, stop flushing and reduce the number of normal waterings so that the pot is allowed to dry for a day. Leaves will start to wither completely, watering is reduced to a gentle moistening of the top layer as the inflorescence emerges. Watering should not be necessary from here on. During dormancy, the pseudobulbs get the moisture from the air. If their surrounding is too dry the bulbs will start shriveling. This is not a good sign: increase humidity by placing saucers of water with clay pebbles or by putting the clay pots in saucers of water - without the soil touching the water. This will dampen the pot and create a mildly humid environment. Remove excess water from the saucer and repeat every day. This can only be done for plants that sit in clay pots, plastic pots aren't a good idea for growing Calanthe.
Calanthe 'Bryan K.'
Seeing deciduous Calanthe in flower for the first time is an occasion to get the camera out. The show looks a bit unnatural: a pot with white-topped green eggs that has a meter-long inflorescence sticking out. The flowers last in the order of 3 to 7 weeks and the plants multiply pretty fast, a few plants grow into an eye catching greenhouse-filling display before you know it.
Temperature shouldn't change too much between summer and winter. Maintain warm environment with an 18°C minimum, even for winter nights. Try to create a well-ventilated humid surrounding, high air humidity is one of the ingredients of success. Plants like a bright sunny spot. All these requirements point towards a heated greenhouse for those that live in a temperate climate.
As hinted, plants multiply readily so they'll have to be divided from time to time. This is normally done every two to three years when the new shoots are emerging. At this point the pot should have a number of fat pseudobulbs, from the past few years. The oldest - original - bulb has probably rotted away and left a hole in the middle of the pot. Formation of new shoots overlaps with flowering but since Calanthe flowers last for weeks in a vase they're not wasted. Cut the flower stem so that a 5 centimeter stick remains at the bulb.
Evergreen plants Evergreen Calanthe can be divided into two groups for culture: those that require a tropical to sub-tropical environment with an elevated minimum-temperature and the temperate ones from the semi-shaded humus-rich soils on the slopes of Cryptomeria woodlands in Japan. The latter species are very popular in culture in Asia. The temperate species require a free-draining soil with quite a bit of nutritional reserve: 1 part coarse drainage material is mixed with an equal amount of peat. To this we add 2 parts of sifted standard orchid mix and 2 parts of aged leafmould. Mr. Frikkie Marais advises to add 1 cup of blood and bone meal for every wheelbarrow of mix 3).
aprašymas cituojamas iš http://culturesheet.org/orchidaceae:calanthe